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Back to Tiferes Citation and Plagiarism Guide




Footnotes and endnotes used to be the standard method for giving credit to sources, however in the last few years, the practice has been replaced by in-text citation. If your teacher prefers you to use footnotes, or endnotes, please follow these rules:

  1. If you are using Microsoft Word or Open-Office to type up your report, there is an automated function that will assist you in creating footnotes and endnotes.

    • In Word 2003, the tool can be found under the Insert>References menu.

    • In Word 2007, this can be found under References menu.

    • You can also use the subscript feature of the program.

  1. Footnotes are placed at the bottom of the page on which the information is found. Endnotes are placed numerically at the end of the essay on a page called “Notes.”

  2. Number the footnotes consecutively from the first entry to the last one in the essay. Do not restart numbers on each pay.

  3. Indent the first line of a footnote 5 spaces from the left.


Direct Quotation

Use quotation marks around the text. Immediately after the final quotation mark, insert your footnote number.

At the bottom of the page or at the end of the essay, use full bibliographic information as you would in your Works Cited or References, except the author’s name appears in normal order, e.g. John Smith, rather than Smith, John.

Colour war is exciting for the students.” 1


Place the number at the end of the sentence containing the paraphrased material.

See above for the note at the bottom of page / at end of the essay.

As Smith stated, Colour War is an exciting time for the students.2

Multiple References to same Text

The first time a text is references, use the method described above.

For subsequent references, use the author’s last name, page number.

Note: Footnotes and endnotes used to use: (Op. cit. (in the same work) and Ibid (in the same place) for this purpose however the method described above is now preferred.)

As above, but for endnote or footnote for subsequent entries:

(Smith 25)



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