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Examples of Plagiarism

Page history last edited by Mrs. Train 8 years, 1 month ago

Back to Tiferes Citation and Plagiarism Guide

 

Examples of Plagiarism

 

These examples are adapted from: https://www.indiana.edu/~istd/examples.html

The examples are in APA format.

 

Example 1 – Word for Word Plagiarism

The writer has used words directly from the original text.

  • He does not use quotation marks.

  • He does not cite the source (using in-text citation).

  • He does not include the book in the bibliography (Works Cited / References)

 

Original Text: Technology has significantly transformed education at several major turning points in our history. In the broadest sense, the first technology was the primitive modes of communication used by prehistoric people before the development of spoken language. Mime, gestures, grunts, and drawing of figures in the sand with a stick were methods used to communicate -- yes, even to educate. Even without speech, these prehistoric people were able to teach their young how to catch animals for food, what animals to avoid, which vegetation was good to eat and which was poisonous.

Source: Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.

 

Plagiarized Version

 

Correct Version

In examining technology, we have to remember that computers are not the first technology people have had to deal with. The first technology was the primitive modes of communication used by prehistoric people before the development of spoken language.

 

In examining technology, we have to remember that computers are not the first technology people have had to deal with. Frick (1991) believes that "... the first technology was the primitive modes of communication used by prehistoric people before the development of spoken language" (p. 10).

References: Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.

Explanation: This example of student written work is plagiarized. The student copied, word-for-word, text from the original source material. No credit was given to the author of the text and quotation marks were not used. Also, the student didn't provide a reference.

 

Explanation: Note in this example that the passage begins with the author and year of the publication. Quotation marks are used to indicate that this passage is a word-for-word citation from the original document.

 

Example 2 – Word for Word Plagiarism

The writer has used words directly from the original text.

  • He does NOT use quotation marks.

  • He does NOT cite the source (using in-text citation).

  • He does include the book in the bibliography (Works Cited / References)

 

Original Source Material: Constructivism is a movement that extends beyond the beliefs of the cognitivist. It considers the engagement of students in meaningful experiences as the essence of learning. The shift is from passive transfer of information to active problem solving. Constructivists emphasize that learners create their own interpretations of the world of information.

Source: Heinich, R., Molenda, M., Russell, J. D., & Smaldino, S. E. (1999). Instructional media and technologies for learning. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

 

Plagiarized Version

 

Correct Version

Constructivists do not hold views entirely opposed to those of the cognitivists. The position of constructivists extends beyond the beliefs of the cognitivist.

References: Heinich, R., Molenda, M., Russell, J. D., & Smaldino, S. E. (1999). Instructional media and technologies for learning. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

 

Constructivists do not hold views entirely opposed to those of the cognitivists. The position of constructivists "... extends beyond the beliefs of the cognitivist" (Heinich, Molenda, Russell, & Smaldino, 1999, p. 17).

References: Heinich, R., Molenda, M., Russell, J. D., & Smaldino, S. E. (1999). Instructional media and technologies for learning. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Explanation: This example of student written work is plagiarized. The student included a portion of the original author's work in a sentence without using quotation marks. Although the work was cited in the references, no credit was given to the original author in the text of the paper, and quotation marks were not used.

 

Explanation: Quotation marks are used to indicate that this passage is a word-for-word citation from the original document.

 

Example 3 – Word for Word Plagiarism

 

The writer has used words directly from the original text.

  • He does NOT use quotation marks.

  • He does cite the source (using in-text citation).

  • He does include the book in the bibliography (Works Cited / References)

 

Original Source Material: The concept of systems is really quite simple. The basic idea is that a system has parts that fit together to make a whole; but where it gets complicated -- and interesting -- is how those parts are connected or related to each other.

Source: Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.

 

Plagiarized Version

 

Correct Version

A system has parts that fit together to make a whole, but the important aspect of systems is how those parts are connected or related to each other (Frick, 1991).

References: Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.

 

Frick (1991) states that "... a system has parts that fit together to make a whole ..." but the important aspect of systems is "... how those parts are connected or related to each other" (p. 17).

References: Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.

Explanation: This example of student written work is plagiarized. Although the author is cited at the end of the paragraph, the student copied word-for-word from the original source material and did not use quotation marks.

 

Explanation: Note in this example that the passage begins with the author and year of the publication. Quotation marks are used to indicate that the passages are word-for-word citations from the original document. The author is also listed in the references.

 

Example 4 – Word for Word Plagiarism

 

The writer has used words from different locations in the original text.

  • He does not use quotation marks.

  • He does NOT cite the source (using in-text citation).

  • He does NOT include the book in the bibliography (Works Cited / References)

Original Source Material: Theories differ from philosophies and models of teaching. A philosophy is a value system, whereas a theory seeks to explain real-world events and can be certified through scientific investigation. Models of teaching are approaches to the management of some aspect of classroom instruction and they may not be independent of subject area, grade level, age of the student, or the setting for learning. A characteristic of learning theories is that they address the underlying psychological dynamics of events. Thus, they provide a mechanism for understanding the implications of events related to learning in both formal and informal settings.

Source: Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

 

Plagiarized Version

 

Correct Version

Theories and philosophies are different from each other because theories seek to explain real-world events and can be certified through scientific investigation. Learning theories address the underlying psychological dynamics of events, so they provide a mechanism for understanding the implications of events related to learning in both formal and informal settings.

 

Theories and philosophies are different from each other because, according to Gredler (2001) theories seek

to explain real-world events and can be certified through scientific investigation... A characteristic of learning theories is that they address the underlying psychological dynamics of events. Thus, they provide a mechanism for understanding the implications of events related to learning in both formal and informal settings. (pp. 12-13)

References: Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Explanation: This example of student written work is plagiarized. The student used several passages from the original work and inserted them into original prose, however this is still an example of word-for-word plagiarism. No credit was given to the author in the text and quotation marks were not used, and also the work was not listed in the references.

 

Explanation: An indented block is used to indicate that this passage is a word-for-word quotation and the pages where it was taken from the original document. The original author of the content is cited at the end of the passage and in the reference section as well.

 

Examples 5 – Plagiarism using Paraphrasing

When you paraphrase original text you do not need to use quotation marks, however you still need to cite the source and include it in the Works Cited or References at the end of your paper..

  • She does not need to use quotation marks for paraphrased passages.

  • He does NOT cite the source (using in-text citation).

  • He does include the book in the bibliography (Works Cited / References)

 

Original Source Material:  During the last decade, there has been a shift from "instructivist" approaches towards "constructivist" approaches in the field of instructional design. Instructivist approaches reflect the belief that the role of knowledge is basically to represent the real world. Meaning is eventually determined by this real world and [is] thus external to the understander.

Source: Merriënboer, J. J. van. (1997). Training complex cognitive skills. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

 

Plagiarized Version

 

Correct Version

Over the last ten years, there has been a marked change from "instructivist" points of view to "constructivist" points of view among instructional designers. Instructivist points of view hold the belief that the role of knowledge is fundamentally to represent the real world. In this view, meaning is determined by the real world and is therefore external to the learner.

References: Merriënboer, J. J. van. (1997). Training complex cognitive skills. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

 

Instructivists hold that the "real world," external to individuals, can be represented as knowledge and determines what will be understood by individuals. This view has been shifting to a constructivist view over the past decade (Merriënboer, 1997).

References: Merriënboer, J. J. van. (1997). Training complex cognitive skills. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

Explanation: This example has been plagiarized. The student has substituted synonyms for many words in the passage, but has not changed the structure of the text and has used another person's ideas without crediting that person for them.

 

Explanation: This example has been paraphrased and the original author has been credited for those ideas. The student has cited the source of the ideas appropriately, and included the source in the reference list.

 

Example 7 – Plagiarism using Paraphrasing

 

  • She does not need to use quotation marks.

  • She does cite the source (using in-text citation).

  • She does include the book in the bibliography (Works Cited / References)

 

Original Source Material: Technology has significantly transformed education at several major turning points in our history. In the broadest sense, the first technology was the primitive modes of communication used by prehistoric people before the development of spoken language. Mime, gestures, grunts, and drawing of figures in the sand with a stick were methods used to communicate - yes, even to educate. Even without speech, these prehistoric people were able to teach their young how to catch animals for food, what animals to avoid, which vegetation was good to eat and which was poisonous.

Source: Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.

 

Plagiarized Version

 

Correct Version

History has demonstrated that technology affects education profoundly. Considering the definition of technology broadly, one may say that prehistoric people used primitive technologies to teach skills to their young (Frick, 1991).

 

History has demonstrated that technology affects education profoundly. Considering the definition of technology broadly, one may say that prehistoric people used primitive technologies to teach skills to their young (Frick, 1991).

References: Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.

Explanation: This example has been plagiarized. Although the student has paraphrased the original material and included a citation for the original author, no reference is provided in the reference list.

 

Explanation: This example has been paraphrased and is not considered plagiarized. The student has cited the original author and included an appropriate entry in the reference list.

 

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